Gestalt psychology and systems thinking
Gestalt psychologists led by Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler, saw the existence of irreductibles wholes as a key aspect of perception. Living organisms, they asserted, perceive things not in terms of isolated elements, but as integrated perceptual patterns, meaningful organized wholes, wich exhibit qualities that are absent in their parts.
Fritjof Capra. The web of life
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